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Diabetes Insipidus

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare disease which is characterized by the absence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) resulting in a copious flow of dilute urine and excessive thirst.

Diabetes insipidus is a not common condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water.

What is the Cause of Diabetes Insipidus?

During the day, the kidneys filter all the blood many times.

Normally, most of the water is reabsorbed, and only a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted.

Central Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys cannot concentrate the urine normally, and a large amount of dilute urine is excreted.

The amount of water passed out in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

ADH is also called vasopressin.

ADH is a hormone which is formed in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.

The pituitary gland stores ADH in the posterior lobe and releases it when the body requires it.

The pituitary gland is a small organ at the base of the brain.

Diabetes insipidus resulting from a lack of ADH from the pituitary gland is called central diabetes insipidus.

Primary Central diabetes insipidus:

Primary Central diabetes insipidus forms 50% of Central diabetes insipidus and is due to the decrease of nuclei of the neurohypophyseal gland.

It has a genetic cause.

Secondary Central diabetes insipidus

Secondary Central diabetes insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of:

a. Head injury
b. Infection
c. Loss of blood supply to the gland
d. Surgery
e. Tumor
f. Granuloma
g. Brain aneurysm or thrombosis
h. Histiocytosis

Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus

When Diabetes insipidus is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus occurs as a result from a defect in the kidneys.

Consequently the kidneys will not react to the effects of ADH.

Like central Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus is very rare.

Nephrogenic DI may be caused by:

1. Genetic problems – x-linked recessive genetic inheritance

Homozygous males are unresponsive to Antidiuretic Hormone

Heterozygous females have normal or impaired response to ADH

Secondary Nephrogenic DI may be caused by:

b. Certain drugs (such as lithium)

c. High level of calcium in the body (hypercalcemia)

d. Kidney disease (such as polycystic kidney disease)

Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon disturbance resulting from any condition damaging the neurophyseal system of pituitary gland.

It is idiopathic in 45 % of cases

It occurs at any age and affects either sex

It is unusual in infancy but can commence in early childhood

It is acquired from head trauma, neoplasm (primary and metastatic especially the breast), sarcoidosis, birth injuries or eosinophilic granuloma

What are the Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus?

1. Polyuria- Excessive urine volume - Urine output 5-10 liters per 24 hours

Excessive urination, often needing to urinate every hour throughout the day and night

2. Polydipsia (especially for cold water)

Excessive thirst that may be intense or not controllable together with the need to drink large amounts of water or craving for ice water

3. No evidence of ill health

Urine volumes and abnormality in patients with head trauma and coma should be monitored



Chapter 1 Diabetes Insipidus

Chapter 2 Causes

Chapter 3 Symptoms

Chapter 4 Diagnosis

Chapter 5 Treatment

Chapter 6 Prognosis
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Questions & answers

  1. martin martin says:
    What are the other types of names for Diabetes? Or better yet Why isnt it just called Diabetes?
    Like a logical positivism of action type of deal. My teacher-a pharmacist- is asking us that at issue and we have already researched that there is Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus but what i want to be sure is how this diabetes is caused.
    kelliegirl33 says:
    It has to do with the hormone ADH and it as per usual is caused by a. Another name for this is "water diabetes". I have diabetes insipidus.
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Facts of Diabetes Insipidus - Kamagra Jelly, Buy Easily Kamagra ...

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare rumpus related to frequent urination, dehydration. A hormone called “antideuritc hormone (ADH), also termed as vasopressin is touched. People usually get bewildered with the concepts “Diabetes” & “Diabetes Insipidus”.
Source: http://jellypharmacy.blogspot.com/2013/02/facts-of-diabetes-insipidus.html

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  1. Diabetes Mellitus Should Not Be Sevens With Diabetes Insipidus
    Both father polyuria, but Diabetes Insipidus is generally caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) when a go away of the brain called the hypothalamus and does not create enough of the hormone. This is called principal diabetes insipidus
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    or direct hypodipsia.4,6,10,12 Diabetes insipidus can cause a hypovolemic hypernatremia auspices of one of two mechanisms: decreased secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary or increased renal recalcitrance to ADH, with resultant inability to
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Diabetes Insipidus:. « Meonk's Blog
Diabetes Insipidus:. « Meonk's Blog
de hypofyseachterkwab (of hypothalamus) verhindert een tekort aan ADH ...
de hypofyseachterkwab (of hypothalamus) verhindert een tekort aan ADH ...